Plant Nutrition

Plant nutrition is a fundamental science that impacts all aspects of cropping systems, environmental sustainability, and human health and well-being. It is the study of chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, metabolism and their external supply.

Seventeen chemical elements are required for plant growth and survival. These are classified into two major groups Non-mineral and Minerals.

The non-mineral nutrients are carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). These are abundantly available in air and water. Plants utilize these nutrients as per their requirement via photosynthesis and convert these into plant’s their energy source starch and sugars.

The mineral nutrients come from the soil. These are dissolved in water and absorbed through plant’s roots. During the plantation or crop cycle soil gets depleted of these minerals and not enough of nutrients are present for the next crop or plant to grow healthy. Here comes the need for addition of nutrients to soil for nourishment of plants.

The mineral nutrients are classified into two categories viz. macronutrients and micronutrients depending on the quantity required for nourishment.

Macronutrients are further classified into two categories primary and secondary. The primary nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). These essential elements are required by plants in higher quantities than elements that fall into the other category. These three elements perform crucial functions in plant biology. Nitrogen is necessary for building proteins, produces carbohydrates, and is essential for plant growth. Phosphorus effects root growth, seed formation, and plant maturity. Potassium is important in disease resistance, fruit formation, and plays major role in making plant enzymes.

Secondary plant nutrients are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulphur (S). These elements are not needed in high quantities but are necessary for plant health. Sulphur helps develop vitamins, aids in seed production, and is an integral part of forming amino acids. Magnesium is a key component in chlorophyll production and helps plants to utilize phosphorus and iron. Calcium plays many roles in regulating plant system functions like respiration and cell division and in some plants, it is essential for nut development.

The micronutrients are needed in much smaller quantities but are necessary for growth and development. The plant micronutrients are boron (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) zinc (Zn) and nickel. Among these, copper, play a major role in photosynthesis and reproduction. Others aid in the absorption and utilization of other elements.


Table

wdt_ID Nutrient Nutritional Requirement Deficiency Symptom
1 Macronutrient
2 Nitrogen Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Stunted Growth
4 Nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis.  ·         Reduction in flowering and crop yield
5 Helps plants with rapid growth, increasing seed and fruit production and improving the quality of leaf and forage crops.  ·         Reduced protein content
6 Nitrogen often comes from fertilizer application and from the air
7 Phosphorous Like nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is an essential part of the process of photosynthesis.  ·       Dark green or bluish colored leaves
8 Involved in the formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc. ·       Restricted growth of plat tops and roots
9 Helps with the transformation of solar energy into chemical energy; proper plant maturation; withstanding stress. ·       P-deficient plants are thin, erect and spindly with sparse and restricted foliage
10 Effects rapid growth. ·       Development of lateral buds is suppressed, leaves become narrow, making an acute angle with stem-axis.
11 Encourages blooming and root growth.
Nutrient Nutritional Requirement Deficiency Symptom

ANPL has developed special ingredients based on blend of different deoiled cakes for the slow release of macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. The ANPL ingredients are designed in such way that they will improve the soil’s physical and chemical fertility both.

Nutrient composition of ANPL product:

wdt_ID Nutrient Content (%)
1 Nitrogen 5.6 – 6.4
2 Minerals 5- 10
3 Phosphorous 1- 2
4 Potassium 1- 2
5 Calcium 0.5-1
6 Other trace minerals 1- 2
7 Secondary plant metabolites Up to 10%
Nutrient Content (%)